Feasibility and safety of intranasally administered mesenchymal stromal cells after perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke in the Netherlands (PASSIoN): a first-in-human, open-label intervention study

Lancet Neurol. 2022 Jun;21(6):528-536. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00117-X.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (PAIS) is an important cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities. In this first-in-human study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of intranasally delivered bone marrow-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to treat PAIS in neonates.

METHODS: In this open-label intervention study in collaboration with all neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands, we included neonates born at full term (?36 weeks of gestation) with MRI-confirmed PAIS in the middle cerebral artery region. All eligible patients were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital. Neonates received one dose of 45-50 × 106 bone-marrow derived MSCs intranasally within 7 days of presenting signs of PAIS. The primary endpoints were acute and subacute safety outcomes, including vital signs, blood markers, and the occurrence of toxicity, adverse events, and serious adverse events. The occurrence of unexpected cerebral abnormalities by a repeat MRI at 3 months of age was a secondary endpoint. As part of standard clinical follow-up at Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, we assessed corticospinal tract development on MRI and performed motor assessments at 4 months of age. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03356821.

FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2020, and April 29, 2021, ten neonates were enrolled in the study. Intranasal administration of MSCs was well tolerated in all ten neonates. No serious adverse events were observed. One adverse event was seen: a mild transient fever of 38°C without the need for clinical intervention. Blood inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and leukocyte count) were not significantly different pre-administration versus post-administration and, although thrombocyte levels increased (p=0·011), all were within the physiological range. Follow-up MRI scans did not show unexpected structural cerebral abnormalities. All ten patients had initial pre-Wallerian changes in the corticospinal tracts, but only four (40%) patients showed asymmetrical corticospinal tracts at follow-up MRI. Abnormal early motor assessment was found in three (30%) infants.

INTERPRETATION: This first-in-human study demonstrates that intranasal bone marrow-derived MSC administration in neonates after PAIS is feasible and no serious adverse events were observed in patients followed up until 3 months of age. Future large-scale placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine the therapeutic effect of intranasal MSCs for PAIS.

FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw).

PMID:35568047 | DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00117-X

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Dupilumab in a child with severe atopic dermatitis and severe asthma-a rare case with severe limbitis and exercise-induced anaphylaxis

Int J Dermatol. 2022 May 14. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16259. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35567488 | DOI:10.1111/ijd.16259

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Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin versus oral azathioprine in patients with severe chronic hand eczema: results from a prematurely discontinued randomized controlled trial

Contact Dermatitis. 2022 May 14. doi: 10.1111/cod.14161. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35567385 | DOI:10.1111/cod.14161

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Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections with the delta (B.1.617.2) variant in vaccinated patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases using immunosuppressants: a substudy of two prospective cohort studies

Lancet Rheumatol. 2022 Apr 29. doi: 10.1016/S2665-9913(22)00102-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding the risks of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinated patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases treated with immunosuppressants, but clinical data on breakthrough infections are still scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections between patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases using immunosuppressants, and controls (patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases not taking immunosuppressants and healthy controls) who had received full COVID-19 vaccinations. The secondary objective was to explore determinants of breakthrough infections of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2, including humoral immune responses after vaccination.

METHODS: In this substudy, we pooled data collected in two large ongoing prospective multicentre cohort studies conducted in the Netherlands (Target to-B! [T2B!] study and Amsterdam Rheumatology Center COVID [ARC-COVID] study). Both studies recruited adult patients (age ?18 years) with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and healthy controls. We sourced clinical data from standardised electronic case record forms, digital questionnaires, and medical files. We only included individuals who were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. For T2B!, participants were recruited between Feb 2 and Aug 1, 2021, and for ARC-COVID, participants were recruited between April 26, 2020, and March 1, 2021. In this study we assessed data on breakthrough infections collected between July 1 and Dec 15, 2021, a period in which the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant was the dominant variant in the Netherlands. We defined a SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection as a PCR-confirmed or antigen test-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection that occurred at least 14 days after vaccination. All breakthrough infections during this period were assumed to be due to the delta variant due to its dominance during the study period. We analysed post-vaccination serum samples for anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies to assess the humoral vaccination response (T2B! study only) and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies to identify asymptomatic breakthrough infections (ARC-COVID study only). We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to explore potential clinical and humoral determinants associated with the odds of breakthrough infections. The T2B! study is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, Trial ID NL8900, and the ARC-COVID study is registered with Dutch Trial Register, trial ID NL8513.

FINDINGS: We included 3207 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases who receive immunosuppressants, and 1807 controls (985 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease not on immunosuppressants and 822 healthy controls). Among patients receiving immunosuppressants, mean age was 53 years (SD 14), 2042 (64%) of 3207 were female and 1165 (36%) were male; among patients not receiving immunosuppressants, mean age was 54 years (SD 14), 598 (61%) of 985 were female and 387 (39%) were male; and among healthy controls, mean age was 57 years (SD 13), 549 (67%) of 822 were female and 273 (33%) were male. The cumulative incidence of PCR-test or antigen-test confirmed SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections was similar in patients on immunosuppressants (148 of 3207; 4·6% [95% CI 3·9-5·4]), patients not on immunosuppressants (52 of 985; 5·3% [95% CI 4·0-6·9]), and healthy controls (33 of 822; 4·0% [95% CI 2·8-5·6]). There was no difference in the odds of breakthrough infection for patients with immune-mediate inflammatory disease on immunosuppressants versus combined controls (ie, patients not on immunosuppressants and healthy controls; adjusted odds ratio 0·88 [95% CI 0·66-1·18]). Seroconversion after vaccination (odds ratio 0·58 [95% CI 0·34-0·98]; T2B! cohort only) and SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination (0·34 [0·18-0·56]) were associated with a lower odds of breakthrough infections.

INTERPRETATION: The incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases on immunosuppressants was similar to that in controls. However, caution might still be warranted for those on anti-CD20 therapy and those with traditional risk factors.

FUNDING: ZonMw (the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development) and Reade foundation.

PMID:35527808 | PMC:PMC9054068 | DOI:10.1016/S2665-9913(22)00102-3

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Evaluation of Nomacopan for Treatment of Bullous Pemphigoid: A Phase 2a Nonrandomized Controlled Trial

JAMA Dermatol. 2022 May 4. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.1156. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Bullous pemphigoid is a difficult-to-treat autoimmune blistering skin disease that predominantly affects older adults and is associated with an increased mortality rate.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety and therapeutic potential of nomacopan, an inhibitor of leukotriene B4 and complement C5, in patients with bullous pemphigoid.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter, single-group, phase 2a nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted in the dermatology departments of universities in the Netherlands and Germany. Participants were enrolled between September 2018 and April 2020. Older adult patients (aged ?55 years) with mild to moderate, new-onset or relapsing bullous pemphigoid were recruited into the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Patients received nomacopan, 90 mg, subcutaneously on day 1 and 30 mg subcutaneously daily until day 42.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was the proportion of patients with grade 3 to 5 (severe) adverse events associated or possibly associated with nomacopan. Secondary end points included mean absolute and percentage changes in the Bullous Pemphigoid Disease Area Index (BPDAI) activity score, the BPDAI pruritus score, and the patient-reported outcome measures Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Treatment of Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life (TABQOL).

RESULTS: A total of 9 patients (median [range] age, 75 [55-85] years) with bullous pemphigoid were included in the trial, of whom 5 were women (55.6%). No serious adverse events associated with nomacopan were found. The mean (90% CI) BPDAI activity score decreased from 32.0 (8.7) points on day 1 to 19.6 (9.0) points on day 42. Seven of 9 patients (77.8%) responded to nomacopan with a reduction in the BPDAI activity score of at least 8 points between days 1 and 42; in 3 responders, the reduction was 80% or greater. On day 42, the mean (90% CI) BPDAI pruritus score had decreased by 6.8 (4.6) points from 17.6 (4.0) points on day 1. The mean (90% CI) DLQI score decreased from 11.3 (4.2) points at baseline to 6.4 (3.8) points by day 42, and the mean (90% CI) TABQOL score decreased from 14.6 (5.4) points at baseline to 10.3 (5.0) points on day 42.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Results of this nonrandomized controlled trial suggest that nomacopan can be well tolerated in older patients with bullous pemphigoid and may have therapeutic benefits for suppressing acute flares of this disease. A larger, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial is warranted to confirm this safety profile and to establish nomacopan as a new therapeutic option for bullous pemphigoid.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04035733.

PMID:35507334 | DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.1156

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The importance of accurate epidemiological data of epidermolysis bullosa

Br J Dermatol. 2022 May;186(5):765-766. doi: 10.1111/bjd.21295.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35501939 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.21295

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External validation of prognostic models predicting outcome after chronic subdural hematoma

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2022 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00701-022-05216-8. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several prognostic models for outcomes after chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) treatment have been published in recent years. However, these models are not sufficiently validated for use in daily clinical practice. We aimed to assess the performance of existing prediction models for outcomes in patients diagnosed with CSDH.

METHODS: We systematically searched relevant literature databases up to February 2021 to identify prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients diagnosed with CSDH. For the external validation of prognostic models, we used a retrospective database, containing data of 2384 patients from three Dutch regions. Prognostic models were included if they predicted either mortality, hematoma recurrence, functional outcome, or quality of life. Models were excluded when predictors were absent in our database or available for < 150 patients in our database. We assessed calibration, and discrimination (quantified by the concordance index C) of the included prognostic models in our retrospective database.

RESULTS: We identified 1680 original publications of which 1656 were excluded based on title or abstract, mostly because they did not concern CSDH or did not define a prognostic model. Out of 18 identified models, three could be externally validated in our retrospective database: a model for 30-day mortality in 1656 patients, a model for 2 months, and another for 3-month hematoma recurrence both in 1733 patients. The models overestimated the proportion of patients with these outcomes by 11% (15% predicted vs. 4% observed), 1% (10% vs. 9%), and 2% (11% vs. 9%), respectively. Their discriminative ability was poor to modest (C of 0.70 [0.63-0.77]; 0.46 [0.35-0.56]; 0.59 [0.51-0.66], respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: None of the examined models showed good predictive performance for outcomes after CSDH treatment in our dataset. This study confirms the difficulty in predicting outcomes after CSDH and emphasizes the heterogeneity of CSDH patients. The importance of developing high-quality models by using unified predictors and relevant outcome measures and appropriate modeling strategies is warranted.

PMID:35501576 | DOI:10.1007/s00701-022-05216-8

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Persistent low complement levels and increased interferon gene expression are predictive for disease progression in patients with incomplete systemic lupus erythematosus

Joint Bone Spine. 2022 Apr 29:105381. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2022.105381. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35500799 | DOI:10.1016/j.jbspin.2022.105381

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A new avenue for treatment of chronic hand eczema

Br J Dermatol. 2022 May 1. doi: 10.1111/bjd.21604. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35490378 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.21604

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Moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis and lifestyle factors in the Dutch general population

Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Apr 5. doi: 10.1111/ced.15212. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) severity and lifestyle factors among adults have not been conducted in the Netherlands yet.

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between moderate-to-severe AD and lifestyle factors among adults in the Dutch general population.

METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional study within the Lifelines Cohort Study by sending a digital AD questionnaire to 135,950 adults in 2020. We extracted data on lifestyle factors from baseline, collected between 2006 and 2013. We analysed the association between AD, moderate-to-severe AD and lifestyle factors using binary logistic regression and linear regression models.

RESULTS: We included 56,896 subjects (mean age 55.8 years, 39.7% males). The lifetime prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed AD was 9.1%. The point prevalence of AD was 3.3%, and the point prevalence of moderate-to-severe AD was 2.3%. We identified associations of moderate-to-severe AD with a smoking pack years of >15, an alcohol consumption of >2 drinks per day, chronic stress, class I obesity, and shorter and longer sleep duration. Moreover, we found dose-response associations with increased smoking pack years and level of chronic stress. We observed no associations with abdominal obesity, physical activity, diet quality, and a vegetarian/vegan diet.

CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between moderate-to-severe AD and some modifiable lifestyle factors. Our findings indicate that more screening and counselling for lifestyle factors particularly smoking, alcohol use, stress, obesity, and sleep disturbances, appears warranted in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Further longitudinal studies are required to better characterize the direction of these associations, and develop strategies for prevention.

PMID:35384028 | DOI:10.1111/ced.15212

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Pathophysiology of transient neurological deficit in patients with chronic subdural hematoma: A systematic review

Acta Neurol Scand. 2022 Mar 31. doi: 10.1111/ane.13617. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) can have transient neurological deficits deficit (TND) mimicking transient ischemic attacks. The prevalence of TNDs in CSDH varies between 1%-24%, depending on TND definition. Despite this high prevalence the pathophysiology of TND in CSDH is not clear in many cases. In this systematic review, we aim to unravel the responsible mechanism. Pubmed and Embase were searched for all articles concerning the pathophysiology of TND as a presenting symptom in patients with CSDH. There were no publication date restrictions for the articles in the search. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and subsequently extracted the necessary data. Out of 316 identified references, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Several articles mentioned multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. One of the proposed etiologies of TND was epileptic activity, stated by three articles. In contrast, three different studies stated that seizures are unlikely to cause TND. Five papers suggested that obstruction of blood flow, caused by the hematoma or subsequent swelling, might be the cause. Six articles made no definite statement on the responsible pathophysiological mechanism of TND. Different mechanisms have been proposed to be the cause of TNDs in patients with CSDH. Based on this review, the exact pathophysiology of TND remains unclear. We suggest that future studies on this topic should incorporate MRI of the brain (with diffusion-weighted imaging) and EEG, to provide better insight into TND pathophysiology. The knowledge resulting from future studies might contribute to better understanding of TND and optimal treatment in CSDH.

PMID:35355247 | DOI:10.1111/ane.13617

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International eDelphi Study to Reach Consensus on the Methotrexate Dosing Regimen in Patients With Psoriasis

JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Mar 30. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0434. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: A clear dosing regimen for methotrexate in psoriasis is lacking, and this might lead to a suboptimal treatment. Because methotrexate is affordable and globally available, a uniform dosing regimen could potentially optimize the treatment of patients with psoriasis worldwide.

OBJECTIVE: To reach international consensus among psoriasis experts on a uniform dosing regimen for treatment with methotrexate in adult and pediatric patients with psoriasis and identify potential future research topics.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between September 2020 and March 2021, a survey study with a modified eDelphi procedure that was developed and distributed by the Amsterdam University Medical Center and completed by 180 participants worldwide (55 [30.6%] resided in non-Western countries) was conducted in 3 rounds. The proposals on which no consensus was reached were discussed in a conference meeting (June 2021). Participants voted on 21 proposals with a 9-point scale (1-3 disagree, 4-6 neither agree nor disagree, 7-9 agree) and were recruited through the Skin Inflammation and Psoriasis International Network and European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology in June 2020. Apart from being a dermatologist/dermatology resident, there were no specific criteria for participation in the survey. The participants worked mainly at a university hospital (97 [53.9%]) and were experienced in treating patients with psoriasis with methotrexate (163 [91.6%] had more than 10 years of experience).

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: In a survey with eDelphi procedure, we tried to reach consensus on 21 proposals. Consensus was defined as less than 15% voting disagree (1-3). For the consensus meeting, consensus was defined as less than 30% voting disagree.

RESULTS: Of 251 participants, 180 (71.7%) completed all 3 survey rounds, and 58 participants (23.1%) joined the conference meeting. Consensus was achieved on 11 proposals in round 1, 3 proposals in round 2, and 2 proposals in round 3. In the consensus meeting, consensus was achieved on 4 proposals. More research is needed, especially for the proposals on folic acid and the dosing of methotrexate for treating subpopulations such as children and vulnerable patients.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this eDelphi consensus study, consensus was reached on 20 of 21 proposals involving methotrexate dosing in patients with psoriasis. This consensus may potentially be used to harmonize the treatment with methotrexate in patients with psoriasis.

PMID:35353175 | DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0434

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Clinical and Serological Characterization of Orf-Induced Immunobullous Disease

JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Mar 30. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0290. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Ecthyma contagiosum, or orf, is a viral zoonotic infection caused by Poxviridae. Although human orf infection is considered to follow a self-limited course, various immunological reactions may be triggered, including immunobullous diseases. In the majority of the latter cases, the antigenic target remained enigmatic.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the predominant autoantigen in orf-induced immunobullous disease and further describe this clinical entity.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter case series sought to provide detailed clinical, histopathological and immunological characteristics of a patient with orf-induced pemphigoid. Based on this index patient, serological analyses were conducted of 4 additional patients with previously reported orf-induced immunobullous disease. Immunoblotting with extracellular matrix and a recently established indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of serum anti-laminin 332 IgG were performed.

EXPOSURES: The disease course and clinical characteristics of orf-induced immunobullous disease were observed.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Orf-induced immunobullous disease is primarily characterized by anti-laminin 332 autoantibodies, predominant skin involvement, and a self-limiting course. The study provides further details on epidemiological, clinical, immunopathological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of orf-induced immunobullous disease.

RESULTS: In all 5 patients, IgG1 and/or IgG3 autoantibodies against laminin 332 were identified. The ?3, ?3, and ?2 chains were recognized in 2, 4, and 1 patient(s), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this case series, laminin 332, a well-known target antigen in mucous membrane pemphigoid, was a major autoantigen in orf-induced immunobullous disease, even though predominant mucosal lesions were lacking in this autoimmune blistering disease. Orf-induced anti-laminin 332 pemphigoid is proposed as distinct clinical entity.

PMID:35353128 | DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0290

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Functional investigation of two simultaneous or separately segregating DSP variants within a single family support the theory of a dose-dependent disease severity

Exp Dermatol. 2022 Mar 24. doi: 10.1111/exd.14571. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Desmoplakin (DP) is an important component of desmosomes, essential in cell-cell connecting structures in stress-bearing tissues. Over many hundreds of pathogenic variants in DSP have been associated with different cutaneous and cardiac phenotypes or a combination, known as a cardiocutaneous syndrome. Of less than 5% of the reported DSP variants, the effect on the protein has been investigated. Here, we describe and have performed RNA, protein and tissue analysis in a large family where DSPc.273+5G>A/c.6687delA segregated with palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), woolly hair and lethal cardiomyopathy, while DSPWT/c.6687delA segregated with PPK and milder cardiomyopathy. hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and primary keratinocytes from carriers were obtained for analysis. Unlike the previously reported nonsense variants in the last exon of DSP that bypassed the nonsense-mediated mRNA surveillance system leading to protein truncation, variant c.6687delA was shown to cause loss of protein expression. Patients carrying both variants and having a considerably more severe phenotype were shown to have 70% DP protein reduction, while patients carrying only c.6687delA had 50% protein reduction and a milder phenotype. Analysis of RNA from patient cells did not show any splicing effect of the c.273+5G>A variant. However, a minigene splicing assay clearly showed alternative spliced transcripts originating from this variant. This study shows the importance of RNA and protein analyses to pinpoint the exact effect of DSP variants instead of solely relying on predictions. In addition, the particular pattern of inheritance, with simultaneous or separately segregating DSP variants within the same family, strongly supports the theory of a dose-dependent disease severity.

PMID:35325485 | DOI:10.1111/exd.14571

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Humoral responses after second and third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders on immunosuppressants: a cohort study

Lancet Rheumatol. 2022 Mar 17. doi: 10.1016/S2665-9913(22)00034-0. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease-specific studies have reported impaired humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders treated with specific immunosuppressants. Disease-overarching studies, and data on recall responses and third vaccinations are scarce. Our primary objective was to investigate the effects of immunosuppressive monotherapies on the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with prevalent immune-mediated inflammatory disorders.

METHODS: We did a cohort study in participants treated in outpatient clinics in seven university hospitals and one rheumatology treatment centre in the Netherlands as well as participants included in two national cohort studies on COVID-19-related disease severity. We included patients aged older than 18 years, diagnosed with any of the prespecified immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, who were able to understand and complete questionnaires in Dutch. Participants with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders who were not on systemic immunosuppressants and healthy participants were included as controls. Anti-receptor binding domain IgG responses and neutralisation capacity were monitored following standard vaccination regimens and a three-vaccination regimen in subgroups. Hybrid immune responses-ie, vaccination after previous SARS-CoV-2 infection-were studied as a proxy for recall responses.

FINDINGS: Between Feb 2 and Aug 1, 2021, we included 3222 participants in our cohort. Sera from 2339 participants, 1869 without and 470 participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were analysed (mean age 49·9 years [SD 13·7]; 1470 [62·8%] females and 869 [37·2%] males). Humoral responses did not differ between disorders. Anti-CD20 therapy, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators, and mycophenolate mofetil combined with corticosteroids were associated with lower relative risks for reaching seroconversion following standard vaccination (0·32 [95% CI 0·19-0·49] for anti-CD20 therapy, 0·35 [0·21-0·55] for S1P modulators, and 0·61 [0·40-0·90] for mycophenolate mofetil combined with corticosteroids). A third vaccination increased seroconversion for mycophenolate mofetil combination treatments (from 52·6% after the second vaccination to 89·5% after the third) but not significantly for anti-CD20 therapies (from 36·8% to 45·6%) and S1P modulators (from 35·5% to 48·4%). Most other immunosuppressant groups showed moderately reduced antibody titres after standard vaccination that did not increase after a third vaccination, although seroconversion rates and neutralisation capacity were unaffected. In participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were boosted after vaccination, regardless of immunosuppressive treatment.

INTERPRETATION: Humoral responses following vaccination are impaired by specific immunosuppressants. After standard vaccination regimens, patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders taking most immunosuppressants show similar seroconversion to controls, although antibody titres might be moderately reduced. As neutralisation capacity and recall responses are also preserved in these patients, this is not likely to translate to loss of (short-term) protection. In patients on immunosuppressants showing poor humoral responses after standard vaccination regimens, a third vaccination resulted in additional seroconversion in patients taking mycophenolate mofetil combination treatments, whereas the effect of a third vaccination in patients on anti-CD20 therapy and S1P modulators was limited.

FUNDING: ZonMw (The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development).

PMID:35317410 | PMC:PMC8930018 | DOI:10.1016/S2665-9913(22)00034-0

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